These discoveries are unfolding within the scientific community, and many of them have been anticipated by Bloom. Scientists and other Academicians might find themselves treading a path forged by an outsider. As a scientist who has been developing a hierarchical view of evolution from within academia, I have learned from Howard Bloom and value him as a fellow traveler. I do not agree with everything he says and I sometimes blush at the way he says it--not with the reserve of a scientist but with the brashness of a mass media denizen.
Of course, that only makes the book more fun for the average reader. Many of Howard Bloom's ideas must be passed through the scientific verification machine before they can be accepted. Until then, your motto for The Lucifer Principle should be not "read it and believe," but "read it and think. Its goal is to provide the reader with a new way of looking at his world. The Lucifer Principle takes fresh data from a variety of sciences and shapes them into a perceptual lens, a tool with which to reinterpret the human experience. It attempts to offer a very different approach to the anatomy of the social organism, a new way of understanding the operation of its tendons, bones and joints.
In the process, The Lucifer Principle contends that "evil" is a by-product of nature's strategies for creation and is woven into our most basic biological fabric. This argument echoes a very old one. Paul proposed it when he put forth the doctrine of original sin. Anthropologist Raymond Dart brought it to the fore again when he interpreted fossil remains in Africa as evidence that man is a killer ape.
Old as it is, the concept has often had revolutionary implications. Because it has been the thread on which men like Hobbes and St. Paul have hung dramatic new visions of the world. I've attempted to employ the subject of man's inborn "evil" like those who turned to the subject in the past--to offer up a restructuring of the way we see the business of being human. I've taken the conclusions of cutting-edge sciences--ethology, sociobiology, psychoneuroimmunology and the study of complex adaptive systems, among others--to suggest a new way of looking at culture, civilization, and the mysterious emotions of those who live inside the social beast.
The goal is to open the path toward a new sociology, one which escapes the narrow boundaries of Durkheimian, Weberian and Marxist concepts, theories that have proven invaluable to the study of mass human behavior while simultaneously entrapping it in orthodoxy. The Lucifer Principle is organized as a dessert tray for the intellect. But is the tasting worth the effort? That's for you to say. I can only promise one small thing. When you've finished The Lucifer Principle, you are unlikely to see the daily events around you in the same old way again. Who is Lucifer? Then Lucifer set forth to conquer the earth, using as his pawn a fresh godly invention, an innocent pair Jehovah had planted in a garden--Adam and Eve.
The Great Seducer tempted Eve with the apple of knowledge. She could not resist the Luciferian fruit. Eve's sin against God corrupted all mankind. Ever since that time, man has aspired to the Lord, but found himself a victim of the devil. Marcion the heretic said God was responsible for evil. Mainstream Christians absolved the Almighty of responsibility by blaming all that's wrong on the Prince of Darkness and on man. But, in a strange way, Marcion had a better handle on the situation than the more conventional followers of the church, for Lucifer is merely one of the faces of a larger force.
In a world evolving into ever higher forms, hatred, violence, aggression and war are a part of the evolutionary plan. But where do they fit? Why do they exist? What possible positive purpose could they serve? These are some of the questions behind The Lucifer Principle. The Lucifer Principle is a complex of natural rules each working together to weave a fabric that sometimes frightens and appalls us.
Every one of the threads in that tapestry is fascinating. But the big picture is more astonishing still. At its heart, The Lucifer Principle looks something like this. Lucifer is the dark side of cosmic fecundity, the cutting blade of the sculptor's knife. Nature does not abhor evil; she embraces it. She uses it to build. With it she moves the human world to greater heights of organization, intricacy and power. Death, destruction and fury do not disturb the mother of our world.
They are merely parts of her plan. Only we are outraged by the Lucifer Principle's consequences. And we have every right to be. For we are casualties of nature's callous indifference to life, pawns who suffer and die to live out her schemes. One result: From our urge to pull together comes our tendency to tear each other apart.
From our devotion to a higher good comes our propensity to the foulest atrocities. From our commitment to ideals come our excuses to hate. Since the beginning of history, we have been blinded by evil's ability to don a selfless disguise. We have failed to see that our finest qualities are often the generators of the actions we most abhor--murder, torture, genocide and war.
For millennia men and women have looked at the ruins of their lost homes, at the people precious to them whom they will never see alive again, and they have asked that spears be turned to pruning hooks and that mankind be granted the gift of peace. But prayers are not enough. To dismantle the curse that mother nature has built into us we need a new way of looking at man, a new way of reshaping our destiny and undoing the secret pleasure we take in the shedding of blood.
We must build a picture of the human soul that works. Not a romantic vision that nature will take us in her arms and save us from ourselves, but a recognition that the enemy is within us, and that nature has deposited it there. We need to stare directly into nature's bloody face and realize that she has saddled us with evil for a reason. And we must understand that reason to outwit her. For Lucifer is almost everything men like Milton imagined him to be. He is ambitious, an organizer, a force reaching out vigorously to master even the stars of heaven.
But he is not a demon separate from nature's benevolence. He is a part of the creative force itself. Lucifer, in fact, is mother nature's alter ego. The Clint Eastwood Conundrum We think of ourselves as rugged individuals, cocky Clint Eastwood-like characters capable of making up our own minds, no matter what kind of group pressures might torpedo the less independent thoughts of people around us.
Eric Fromm, the psychoanalytic guru of the '60s, turned the idea that the individual can control his own universe into a rabidly popular notion. Fromm told us that needing other people was a character flaw, a mark of immaturity. Possessiveness in a romantic relationship was an illness. Jealousy was a character stain of the highest magnitude. That rare healthy soul, Fromm wished us to believe, had an indestructible sense of his own worth. As a consequence, he had no need for the admiration and reassurance that only the weak simper after. Fromm was trapped by a scientific fallacy that has become mainstream dogma.
Current evolutionary theory, as promoted by scientists like Harvard's E. Wilson and the University of Washington's David Barash, says that only the competition between individuals counts--the concept is called "individual selection. The dogma of the moment declares emphatically that the creature struggling alone, or occasionally helping out a relative, is the only one whose efforts drive the engines of evolution.
However, the accepted view requires a closer look. Among humans, groups have all too often been the prime movers. It is their competition which has driven us on the inexorable track toward higher degrees of order. This is one key to the Lucifer Principle. At first glance, the notion seems elementary, scarcely worth exploring further.
But it has revolutionary implications. The competition between groups explains the mystery of our self-destructive emotions It explains our ferocious addiction to mythology, scientific theory, ideology and religion. And it explains one even more disturbing addiction Group competition solves the puzzles of the immune system recently uncovered by researchers in psychoneuroimmunology.
It answers the perceptual riddles revealed by new studies on endorphins and control. And it even offers solutions to some of our most baffling political dilemmas. Individualism is a personal credo of great importance. I, for one, am a passionate believer in it. But to scientists, it has been a chimera leading them down a dead-end path.
Specifically, individualism has reared its head in science in the form of a simple proposition. If a piece of physiology--a tooth, a claw, an opposable thumb, or the neural circuit underlying an instinct--has emerged from the evolutionary process, it has triumphed for a simple reason--it has helped the individual survive. More specifically, the physiological device has proven useful in the survival of a long line of individuals, each of whom maintained a competitive edge by virtue of the piece of biological equipment in question.
The problem: Individual survival is not the only mechanism of the evolutionary process. Take, for example, recent research on stress. The stress response--with its high levels of corticosteroids and its clammy manifestations of anxiety--is usually described as part of a fight or flight syndrome, a survival device left over from the days when men were fending off sabertooth tigers. When our primitive ancestors were confronted with a snarling beast, the stress response supposedly prepared them to engage the brute in battle or to hot foot it out of the path of danger.
But if the stress response is such a marvelous tool for self defense, why is it so disabling? Why do stress reactions shut down our thought processes, cripple our immune system, and occasionally turn us into stupefied blobs of jelly? How do these impairments help us survive?
The answer: Men and animals do not merely struggle to maintain their individual existence. They are members of larger social groups. And all too often, it is the social unit, not the individual, whose survival comes first. At first glance, our dependence on our fellow human beings sounds encouragingly angelic.
But it is a blessing with a barb. Harvard psychologist Daniel Goleman, paraphrasing Nietzsche, says "Madness As a result, the greatest human evils are not those that individuals perform in private--the tiny transgressions against some arbitrary social standard we call sins. The ultimate evils are the mass murders that occur in revolution and war, the large-scale savageries that arise when one agglomeration of humans tries to dominate another.
They are the deeds of the social group. The social pack, as we shall see, is a necessary nurturer. It gives us love and sustenance. Without its presence, our mind and body literally switch on an arsenal of interior devices for self-demolition. If we ever save ourselves from the scourge of mass violence, it will be through the efforts of millions of minds, networked together in the collaborative processes of science, philosophy, and movements for social change.
In short, only a group effort can save us from the sporadic insanities of the group. This book is about the social body in which we are the unwitting cells. It is about the hidden ways in which that social group manipulates our psychology, and even our biology. It is about how a social organism scrambles for survival--and works for mastery over other organisms of its kind. It is about how we, without the slightest sense of what the long term results may be of our minuscule actions, contribute to the social organism's ponderous and sometimes earth-shattering deeds.
It is about how in our preoccupations with sex, our submission to gods and leaders, our sometimes suicidal commitment to ideas, religions and trivial details of cultural style, we become the unconscious creators of the social organism's exploits. Examine one molecule of water in a vacuum, and you'll be utterly bored by the lack of activity in your vacuum tube.
Pour a bunch of molecules into a glass, and a new phenomenon crops up--a ring of ripples on the water's surface. Combine enough glasses of water in a big enough basin and you'll end up with something entirely different: Take the 26 letters of the English alphabet, lay them out in front of you, and you'll have a set of small squiggles, each of which evokes just one or two specific sounds.
String a few million together in precisely the proper order and you'll have the collected works of Shakespeare. These are entelechies. A city, a town, a culture, a religion, a body of mythology, a hit record, a dirty joke Take one human being, isolate him in a room from the time he's born until the time he dies, and you'll end up with a creature incapable of using language, with little in the way of imagination--an emotional and physical wreck. Cultures spring into existence only when the crowd is large enough.
They are a phenomenon that sweeps across the face of the multitude like a wave. The phenomenon that creates the Beatles, the phenomenon that makes a Hitler, the phenomenon that launches a new philosophy like Communism or Christian Fundamentalism, these are all entelechies at work, waves rolling over the surface of society, incorporating the minor moves of individual human beings into a massive force the way swells of the sea orchestrate insignificant twitches of water molecules into an overwhelming motion.
The perpetual churnings of the waves and the tides are stirred by the gravity of the moon. But what propels the cultural tides of human beings? What causes a horde of barbaric nomads in the desert wastes of the Arab peninsula to suddenly coalesce under the leadership of one man and spill across the known world, carving out an empire? How does an invisible idea preached by an ayatollah pull isolated humans into surging swells of believers ready to die--or kill--for "truth?
What undertow is sucking America into that same path today? Five simple concepts help explain these human currents. Each section of this book concentrates on one of those concepts Together, these concepts are the foundation underlying the Lucifer Principle. Concept number one: These natural assembly units genes are one example crank out their goods so cheaply that the end results are appallingly expendable.
Among those expendable products are you and me. Concept number two: We are not the rugged individuals we would like to be. We are, instead, disposable parts of a being much larger than ourselves.
Concept number three: Thanks to a handful of biological tricks, these visions become the glue that holds together civilizations, giving each culture its distinctive shape, making some intolerant of dissent and others open to diversity. They are the tools with which we unlock the forces of nature. Our visions bestow the dream of peace. They also turn us into killers.
Concept number four: Concept number five: The naturalist who discovered this "dominance hierarchy" in a Norwegian farmyard called it the key to despotism. Pecking orders exist among men, monkeys, wasps They help explain why the danger of barbarians is real, and why the assumptions of our foreign policies are often wrong. Five simple ideas. Yet the insights they yield are amazingly rich. They reveal why doctors are not always as powerful as they seem, but why we are compelled to believe in them nonetheless. They explain how Hinduism--the religion of ultimate peace--grew from the greed of a tribe of bloodthirsty killers, and why nature disposes of men far more casually than women.
They shed light on America's decline Above all, they illuminate a mystery that has eternally eluded man For within the five small ideas we will pursue there lurks a force that rules us. The Chinese Cultural Revolution "The men who are the most honored are the greatest killers. They believe that they are serving their fellowmen In doing so, he unleashed emotions of the most primitive kind, the true demons of the human mind. These primordial motivators ripped across the face of China, bringing death, destruction and pain.
But the frenzy Mao had freed was not some freak child of Mao's philosophies. It was the simple product of passions that squirm every day inside you and me. In , Mao decided to throw China violently into the future. His catapult was The Great Leap Forward, an economic plan designed to harness China's manpower in a massive modernization program. Billboards carried pictures of a Chinese worker astride a rocket.
The slogan read, "Surpass England in Fifteen Years! They collected iron pots and tore brass fittings off the ancient doors of their houses to provide the scrap metal the construction of those furnaces would require. Peasants left their homes in mass mobilizations, slogged to communal dining halls, and threw themselves into their work with tremendous enthusiasm.
After all, says Gao Yuan, one Chinese schoolboy who lived through it, "People were saying that true communism was just around the corner. The communal dining halls closed. Householders who had taken their pots to the furnaces were forced to find new ones. Ration coupons appeared for grain, oil, cloth and even matches.
The little boys who had thrown themselves so enthusiastically into making an economic miracle grew faint from hunger as they sat in school. They learned to catch cicadas on poles with glue-coated tips, then forced themselves to swallow the still-squirming insects.
They scoured the hills for edible grass and weeds. Their mothers baked bread with flour augmented by willow and poplar leaves. During three long years of heroic "progress" millions died of starvation. The 'Great Leap Forward' had crippled the economy, throttling the production of even the simplest things. And the architect of the brave blunder--old Mao himself--lost power. Those officials looked at a citizenry racked with malnutrition and quickly changed gears. They abandoned theoretical rigor and worked to boost production of the household necessities that had all but disappeared.
Highest on the priority list was raising food. Lots of it. Doctrine took a back seat to the simple task of putting meals on Chinese tables. The further the new policy proceeded, the more the officials responsible for implementing it felt that they were the real powers controlling China. Their swelling pride told them that they were the new bosses, the men who had taken over the helm of history. Mao was a relic, an antique, a figurehead. When Mao tried to issue orders, his underlings treated him politely but shrugged him off.
The commands of China's Great Leader went unheeded. Mao Zedong did not enjoy being led to pasture. And he wasn't the sort of man to take forced retirement lying down. So this demigod of The Revolution contrived a plan to reassert authority, a plan that would be even more devastating to China than the Great Leap Forward. His scheme would not just starve people, it would torture them, beat them to death, and force them into suicide.
It was The Cultural Revolution. Mao took advantage of a simple peculiarity of human nature: The defiant attitude of teenage punk rockers and heavy metal headbangers may seem like a rage spawned by the unique disorders of western culture. It is not. Adolescence awakens defiant urges in nearly all primates.
In chimpanzees, it inspires a wanderlust that forces some young females to leave the cozy family they've always known and go off to make a new life for themselves among strangers. Adolescent langur males kick loose the traces of their childhood family life and cluster in unruly, threatening gangs. Then they go on the prowl, looking for some older, well-established male they can attack. The adolescents' goal: Consequently, many adolescents of our species also resent the authority of the adults over their heads.
Their hormones have suddenly told them that it is time to assert their individuality and to challenge the prerogatives of the older generation. Mao didn't address himself to the adults of China. Those comrades saw the good sense of the officials who had shuffled Mao to the side and focused on producing food to fill the stomachs that had ached with emptiness for three long years.
He turned to the country's teenagers. Mao started his campaign to regain the reins of China innocently enough. Under his orders, the major papers began a literary debate. They attacked a group of authors who called themselves "The Three Family Village. One was vice mayor of Beijing. A third was a propagandist for the Beijing city government.
Over the years, the articles of these three had been regarded as entertaining diversions, models of witty style. Now official editorial writers "discovered" that the writings of The Three Family Village were hidden cesspools of secret meanings. And what did those meanings amount to? An assault on the sacred precepts of The Party. The attack on the Three Family Village quickly moved from the papers to the schools. Students were encouraged to pen their own excoriations of the traitors, as one newspaper put it opening "Fire At the Anti-Party Black Line!
Thus they carried out their duty to "hold high the great banner of Mao Zedong thought! Schoolchildren were encouraged to find other literary works rotting with revisionism and anti-revolutionary notions. The children leapt avidly to their homework assignment. But they became even more enthusiastic a few months later when a new directive came from above: The new task was one any youngster could apply himself to with gusto.
That teacher who gave you a poor mark on your last paper? He's a bourgeois revisionist! Humiliate him. The pedagogue who balled you out for being late for class. A capitalist rotter! Make her feel your wrath. Revenge had nothing to do with it. This was simply an issue of ideological purity. Students examined everything their teachers had ever written. In the subtlest turns of innocent phrasing they uncovered the signs of reactionary villainy. At first, they simply tacked up posters reviling the teachers as monsters and demons.
Then all classes were suspended so that pupils could work on sniffing out traitors full-time. Instructors who had fought faithfully with Mao's revolutionary forces were suddenly reviled. Others who thought of themselves as zealots of Maoist thought were pilloried as loathsome rightists. Some couldn't take the humiliation. At Gao Yuan's school, one teacher attempted to slit his throat. Other pedagogues tried to placate the students. They "exposed" their colleagues, and wrote confessions, hoping to get off the hook.
It didn't work. The students at Democracy Street Primary School created a new form of school assembly. Its star attraction was "the jet plane. One student grabbed him by his hair and pulled back his head. Others lifted his arms and yanked them behind him. Then they held the hapless instructor in this contorted position for hours.
When it was over, most teachers couldn't walk. To make the humiliation a bit more permanent, students shaved their erring teachers' heads. Among their teachers the diligent students "discovered" the vilest of the vile. Says Gao Yuan, they uncovered "hooligans and bad eggs, filthy rich peasants and son-of-a-bitch landlords, bloodsucking capitalists and neobourgeoisie, historical counterrevolutionaries and active counterrevolutionaries, rightists and ultrarightists, alien class elements and degenerate elements, reactionaries and opportunists, counterrevolutionary revisionists, imperialist running dogs, and spies.
At night, they imprisoned their teachers in their bedrooms. Another instructor of the Democracy Street Primary School was driven past endurance. This one hung himself. Now that they had practiced on their teachers, the students were urged to take their cultural cleansing further and form organized units--Red Guards--to root out revisionism in the towns. Like young monkeys raiding an elder, ten and fifteen year olds rampaged into the cities looking for officials who had strayed from the strict Maoist line.
They sniffed out "ox ghosts and snake spirits" among the municipal authorities, subjected magistrates, mayors and local party heads to interrogations, beatings and head-shavings, and marched miscreants through the streets wearing dunce-caps that were sometimes 30 feet high. Needless to say, the officials under attack had provided the foundation of support for the bureaucratic powers who not long ago had ignored Chairman Mao.
The more the Red Guards attacked that foundation, the more the bureaucratic resistance to the Glorious Chairman crumbled. Urged on by Mao's speeches, they went on a campaign against "The Four Olds"--the remnants of pre-revolutionary style. The students pulled down store signs, renamed streets, slit the cloth legs of anyone wearing tight pants, stopped women in the town gates to cut off their braids, pulled down ancient monuments, broke into homes, and smashed everything that carried the hated aura of tradition.
Then the Red Guards turned on each other. It started as a debate over the true Maoist line. But behind the argument about Mao's thought was another issue. Class warfare is a central concept of Maoism. As a result, each citizen of Mao's China was categorized according to the class from which his parents or grandparents came. If your family in the distant past had belonged to an unacceptable social category, you were a pariah.
What was acceptable? The poor peasants and soldiers. Middle peasants and intellectuals were beneath contempt. Upper peasants, capitalists or landlords were utterly beyond the pale. Just to keep things straight, the descendants of these hated social strata were sometimes forced to wear black armbands with white letters broadcasting their status. In Gao Yuan's school, one student declared categorically that only those whose class background was "pure," those whose parents had come from the Red Categories--poor peasants and soldiers--should be allowed in the Red Guard.
Said the snobbish student, keep them out. A parent's class has nothing to do with children, protested Gao Yuan. We all have a socialist education. The Red Guard would take over the administration of the cities and the schools. If you belonged, you'd have power.
If you didn't, every petty grudge against you could be turned into a political charge. And the slightest accusation of ideological sin could be used to make your days worse than your most appalling nightmare. The debate over who should be allowed in and kept out was not an innocent children's game. Eventually there would be two different Red Guards in Gao Yuan's school. One would embrace the children of the favored classes. The other would harbor the rejects--the children of the forbidden castes.
At first the two factions were content to squabble over which one upheld Mao's true line. Each accused the other of right-wing revisionism. Both shouted torrents of Mao's quotes, determined to prove the rival faction wrong. Soon they turned from citations to taunts and insults. Then they graduated to throwing rocks. The two sides armed themselves. They made slingshots and clubs, then wove helmets from willow twigs soaked in water--helmets so hard you could smash them with a hammer and barely make a dent. A few lucky kids found old swords. Others made sabers and daggers out of scrap metal.
Everyone in Gao Yuan's town had grown up knowing how to mix gunpowder from scratch. Children traditionally crafted their own firecrackers for annual holidays. Now, the students of Democracy Street Primary School put that skill to a new use. They built arsenals of home-made hand grenades. And some found ways to get guns. It wasn't long before the two rival gangs of Red Guards were engaged in full-scale warfare.
Each occupied a separate set of buildings on the campus. And each began a series of raids to unseat the other from its newly-established headquarters. In those armed forays, students were wounded with stones, blades and explosives. The more the blood flowed, the angrier each group became. One Red Guard faction came across a lone member of the rival gang on campus, dragged him to an empty dorm room, tied him up, and interrogated him, searching for the secrets to their adversaries' weak points. The captured student at first refused to talk.
The interrogators beat him with a chair leg. They snared another student and hung him from the ceiling of the room for days. Yet another, they bludgeoned with a poker. This time, they made a mistake. The poker had a sharp projection at the end which punctured the imprisoned student's skin every time it struck. When the questioning session was over, the student's legs were bleeding profusely.
He died a few hours later. Why had the tormentors used so much force? Their captive was a traitor to the precepts of Chairman Mao. The Chairman himself had said that revolution is not a dinner party. Sometimes it was hard to remember that the person hanging from the rafters had sat three chairs away from you in homeroom since the two of you were little kids. They spat phrases from the Great Leader like machine gun bullets, ferocious in their devotion to "dialectic truth.
Idealism transformed the rapacity of the students into a sense of selfless zeal. The Cultural Revolution threw China into chaos. Finally, the military took control of the country and restored order. The Red Guard members were drafted as they came of age. The teenagers who had fought each other went their separate ways. Gao Yuan entered military service, then studied in Peking. He met an American girl, moved to the U. Not long after, others who had suffered through the Cultural Revolution would pen memoirs revealing even greater horrors.
Meanwhile, the head of the class-purity-oriented group that had systematically tortured Gao Yuan and his friends for over a year became a member of a trucking company. He resurfaced only when China began the modern economic reform that allows a measure of entrepreneurial freedom. Today the former Red Guard leader once again uses the ability to organize others that helped him marshal his fierce young army of students. He founds successful capitalist enter- prises.
Only one person really got what he wanted from the Chinese Cultural Revolution: Mao Zedong. When it was all over, he had driven his opponents from their roosts and regained control of China. The formerly shy and well-behaved teenagers caught up in the Chinese Cultural Revolution pulled together in tight clusters. The signal that drew them together was altruism of ideology. Once their groups had been formed, ideology served a second purpose.
It became a weapon, an excuse for lashing out at rival groups, a justification for murder, torture and humiliation. Within their tight gangs, the Chinese teens loved each other. Their loyalty to their comrades and to their master--Chairman Mao--was ferocious. But when they turned their attention to outsiders--the folks they labeled as counter-revolutionaries--their feelings were different.
Toward those beyond their tiny circle they radiated only hatred. And they treated those they despised with remorseless brutality.
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The Chinese Cultural Revolution was a microcosm of the forces that manipulate human history. It showed how the insubstantial things we call ideas can trigger the loftiest idealism and the basest cruelty. And it demonstrated how under the urge to heroism and commitment to the elevation of all mankind there often lies something truly grotesque--the impulse to destroy our fellow human beings. How do mere fragments of thought turn to concepts that kill? Why do groups so readily congeal, face off and fight? To answer these questions, we have to look at the forces that gave us birth.
NOTES 1. Because the early church was implacable in its wrath against Marcion, not much remains of his work. The best primary sources on his teachings are attacks against him by early church fathers like Tertullian e. Most of the scholarship on Marcion during the last hundred years has appeared in German e.
Adolf von Harnack's Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur bis Eusebius. However good--though brief--biographies of Marcion appear in: VIII, pp. For additional details on Marcion, see: Roland H.
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Isaiah used the term Lucifer merely to refer poetically to the king of Babylon--not exactly his favorite monarch. Later, Christians like John Milton would take Isaiah's figure of speech and weave an elaborate tale around it, crafting a devil of im- pressive proportions.
Bryan Mullen, Ph. The term "entelechy" was introduced into modern scientific discourse over 50 years ago by German experimental embryologist and philosopher Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennet, The Mind's I: For different interpretations of entelechy, see: Rene A.
Spitz, "Hospitalism: I, pp. Spitz, M. Wolf, Ph. II, p. Marilyn T. Erickson, Child Psycho-pathology: Leo Kanner, M. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, , pp. Raymond J. Corsini, ed. Ozaki, assistant ed. Harry F. Osler and Robert E. Cooke, eds. Stephen J. Suomi and Harry F. Experimental Models, Jack D. Maser and Martin E. Seligman, W. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, , pp. When the Crusaders of Christ took Jerusalem in , the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorum reported "there was such a massacre that our men were wading up to their ankles in enemy blood. Archbishop William of Tyre described a "spectacle of headless bodies and mutilated limbs strewn in all directions that roused horror in all who looked upon them.
Still more dreadful was it to gaze upon the victors themselves, dripping with blood from head to foot. Gao Yuan, Born Red: Gargi Dutt and V. Altmann, ed. Jay, ed. Edward O. Wilson, Sociobiology: David P. Barash, The Whisperings Within: Barash's two books, by the way, constitute an extremely good introduction to the relatively new field of sociobiology. And Sociobiology and Behavior is a comprehensive academic overview. For those willing to tackle the difficult, there is the ultimate sociobiology book, an intellectual tour de force, E.
Wilson's Sociobiology. This is the book that virtually created the field of sociobiology. A Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution, p. Mao gloated that "All those who have tried to repress the student movement in China have ended up badly. Karol, The Second Chinese Revolution, p. The entire tale told in this chapter is from Gao Yuan's book Born Red. Additional historical background is given in the book's introduction by William A. For Mao's success in regaining power, see also: Karol, The Second Chinese Revolution, pp. Dutt, China's Cultural Revolution, pp. Do you not believe Rousseau claimed that without civilization, humans would never know hatred, prejudice or cruelty.
Today, the Rousseauistic doctrine seems stronger than ever. Twentieth century writers and scientists like Ashley Montagu, Claude Levi-Strauss who hailed Rousseau as the "father of anthropology" , Eric Jantsch, David Barash, Richard Leakey and Susan Sontag have reworked the notion to condemn current industrial civilization. They have been joined by numerous feminist, 2 environmentalist and minority rights extremists. Even such august scientific bodies as the American Anthropological Association, the American Psychological Association, and the Peace And War Section of the American Sociological Association have joined the cause, absolving "natural man" of malevolence by endorsing "The Seville Statement," an international manifesto which declares that "violence is neither in our evolutionary legacy nor in our genes.
Our society is supposedly an incubator for everything that appalls us. However, culture alone is not responsible for violence, cruelty, and war. Despite the Seville Statement's contentions, our biological legacy weaves evil into the substrate of even the most "unspoiled" society.
What's more, organized battle is not restricted to humans. Ants make war and either massacre or enslave a rival swarm. Cichlid fish gang up and attack outsiders. Female bees chase an overaged queen through the corridors of the hive and lunge, biting over and over until she is dead. And even rival "super coalitions" of a half-dozen male dolphins fight like street gangs, often inflicting serious injuries. Fish seldom go to the movies. Myxobacteria, lizards, dolphins and bees have not been "programmed" by Western culture.
A host of writers gained attention in the late eighties and early nineties with books that celebrated a return to a mothering earth. They felt that if we scraped away large-scale agriculture, internal-combustion engines, televisions, and air-conditioners, nature would return to bless us with her primordial paradise. Unfortunately these authors held a distorted view of pre- industrial reality. A pride of lions at their ease enjoys the kind of nature the radical environmentalists dreamed about.
You can see the smiles on lions' faces as they lick their paws and stretch out on the ground side by side, clearly pleased with the comfort of each other's warmth. You can see the benevolence with which a mother keeps a cub from playfully tearing her tail apart. She lifts her huge paw and gently shoves the infant aside when his nipping becomes too painful.
But nature has given these lion mothers only one way of feeding their children. The hunt. This afternoon, these peaceful creatures will tear a gazelle limb from limb. The panicked beast will try frantically to avoid the felines closing in on her. But they will break her neck and drag her across the plain still alive and kicking. Her eyes will be open and aware as her flesh is gashed and torn. Suppose for a minute that lions were suddenly stricken with guilt about their feeding habits and swore off meat. What would they accomplish? They would starve themselves and their children.
For nature has given them only one option: Killing is not an invention of man. It is an invention of nature. Nature's amusements are cruel. A female sea turtle crawls painfully up the beach of a tropical island, dragging her bulk across the sand. Slowly she digs a nest with her hind flippers and lays her eggs. From those eggs come a thousand tiny, irresistible babies, digging out of the sand, blinking at the light for the first time, rapidly gaining their orientation from a genetically preprogrammed internal compass, then taking their first walk, a race toward the sea.
As the infants scoot awkwardly across the beach, propelling themselves with flippers built for an entirely different task, sea birds who have been waiting for this feast swoop down to enjoy meal after high protein meal. Of a thousand newborns, perhaps three will make it to the safety of the ocean waves. No, they're engaged in the same effort as the baby turtles--the effort to survive. Hegel, the 19th century German philosopher, said that true tragedy occurs not when good battles evil, but when one good battles another.
Nature has made that form of tragedy a basic law of her universe. She presents her children with a choice between death and death. She offers a carnivore the options of dying by starvation or of killing for a meal. Nature is like a sculptor continually improving upon her work, but to do it she chisels away at living flesh. What's worse, she has built her morally reprehensible modus operandi into our physiology. If you occasionally feel that you are of several minds on one subject, you are probably right. In reality, you have several brains. And those brains don't always agree.
Paul D. MacLean was the researcher who first posited the concept of "the triune brain. Sitting atop that rudimentary stump is a mass of cerebral tissue bequeathed us by our earliest totally land-dwelling ancestors--the reptiles. The new landlubbers needed to hunt, to find a mate, to carve out territory and to fight in that territory's defense.
The neural machinery they evolved took care of these elementary functions. MacLean calls it the reptile brain. The reptile brain still sits inside our skull like the pit at the center of a peach. It is a vigorous participant in our mental affairs, pumping its primitive, instinctual orders to us at all hours of the day and night.
Eons after the first reptiles ambled away from the beach, their great, great grandchildren many times removed evolved a few dramatic product improvements. These upgrades included fur, warm blood, the ability to nurture eggs inside their own bodies, and the portable supply of baby food we know as milk. The remodeled creatures were no longer reptiles. They had become mammals. Mammals' innovative features gave them the ability to leave the lush tropics and make their way into the chilly north.
Their warm blood allowed them, in fact, to survive the rigors of the occasional ice age. But warm blood exacted its costs. It demanded that mammal parents not simply lay an egg and wander off. It forced mammal mothers to brood over their children for years. And it required a tighter social organization to take care of these suckling clusters of mammal mamas and kids. All this demanded that a few additions be built onto the old reptilian brain.
Nature complied by constructing an envelope of new neural tissue. That tissue surrounded the reptile brain like a peach's juicy fruit enveloping the pit. MacLean called the add-on the mammalian brain. The mammalian brain guided play, maternal behavior, and a host of other emotions. It kept our furry ancestors knitted together in nurturing gangs. Far down the winding path of time, a few of our fuzzy progenitors tried something new. They stood on their hind legs, looked around them, and applied their minds and hands to the exploitation of the world. These were the early humans.
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Some of the comments may be reprinted elsewhere on the site or in the newspaper. We encourage lively, open debate on the issues of the day, and ask that you refrain from profanity, hate speech, personal comments and remarks that are off point. Thank you for taking the time to offer your thoughts. Lawmakers in the heavily Catholic state passed the marriage law this spring, after more than 16 years of efforts by same-sex marriage supporters. Both Minnesota and Rhode Island will automatically recognize marriages performed in other states.
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